The Influence of leadership on organizational citizenship behaviour in Lao-based international non-government organisations

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Ngongvoralath, Thanousone
Author ORCID Profiles (clickable)
Master of Business
Unitec Institute of Technology
Simmons, Glenn
Saifoloi, Malama
Masters Thesis
Ngā Upoko Tukutuku (Māori subject headings)
International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs)
leadership styles
employee motivation
organisational performance
Ngongvoralath, T. (2019). The Influence of leadership on organizational citizenship behaviour in Lao-based international non-government organisations. (Unpublished document submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business). Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Retrieved from
Today’s leaders and managers face unexpected and unforeseeable situations in the workplace, due to the complexity and dynamics of globalisation. Yet, for organisations to avoid sub-optimal performance,employees must perform productively and should undertake additional work beyond their assigned tasks and job description. Thus, effective leadership is critical for managing human resources. Such leaders use a range of approaches to improve the effectiveness of employees to enhance organisational performance. This research examined how the leadership styles employed by leaders and managers in International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) influences Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). A case study approach using semi-structured interviews was employed, to gain in-depth insight into the perspectives and experiences of one leader and two followers from four different INGOs, in Lao PDR. Data analysis followed a thematic process with two levels of analysis – at the INGO and individual levelThe findings reveal that four leadership styles were employed by INGO leaders, namely: Path-goal theory (participative); Situational approach (directing and delegating style); Behavioural approach (authority compliance and middle of the road management); and Transformational leadership. Even though INGO leaders used these four styles, not all aspects of each style were fully practiced. In terms of transformational leadership, only idealised influence was used consistently. Two factors hindered INGO leaders from practicing transformational leadership: the personality of employees and organisational factors (i.e. organisational policy, limited financial resources, injustices felt by employees, and unpleasant or unsupportive workplace environment). The findings suggest that leaders choose a style that fitted their particular personality and situation. Some opted for a single leadership style, while others preferred to combine and use multiple styles based on their circumstances at the time; suggesting that leadership is context dependent. The study also found that INGO employees demonstrate three dimensions of OCB: altruism, conscientiousness and civic virtue in order to enhance the image and reputation of their organisation. Four factors are important for encouraging OCB: having a programme to recognise high performers, fostering a pleasant and supportive environment, having supportive leaders, and having leaders who can communicate effectively. Ultimately, by motivating employees to go beyond their perceived limits and self-interest, organisational productivity and performance can be enhanced.
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