Preliminary development of a complex intervention for osteopathic management of dysfunctional breathing

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Benjamin, Jordan Guy
Bacon, Catherine
Verhoeff, Wesley
Moran, Robert
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Ngā Upoko Tukutuku (Māori subject headings)
abnormal breathing pattern disorders
breathing dysfunction
breathing exercises
physical therapy techniques
osteopathic medicine
Benjamin, J. G., Bacon, C., Verhoeff, W. J., & Moran, R. M. (2016). Preliminary Development of a Complex Intervention for Osteopathic Management of Dysfunctional Breathing. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, May(online), pp.In Press. doi:10.1016/j.ijosm.2016.04.004
BACKGROUND: Breathing retraining (BRT) is commonly used during osteopathic consultations as an adjunct to osteopathic manual therapy (OMT) for assessment and treatment of breathing-related dysfunction. Although BRT and OMT are widely recognised within osteopathy and other allied health disciplines, there are few descriptions of clinically applicable protocols in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of a dual-protocol framework (BRT and OMT) for assessment and treatment of dysfunctional breathing. DESIGN: Development and evaluation of a complex intervention. METHODS: Cyclical, iterative processes of development, feasibility and piloting, evaluation and subsequent redevelopment were applied in the design of two conceptual protocols for BRT and OMT. RESULTS: The resulting BRT protocol consists of progressive steps of breathing practice in three body positions (neutral, flexion, extension), followed by a guide for more advanced breathing challenges that can be tailored towards the individual. The OMT protocol provides a semi-standardised assessment and treatment plan, which details body regions for assessment of somatic dysfunction and a list of techniques that can be selected according to practitioner clinical judgement, based on patient presentation and preferences, and clinical context. CONCLUSIONS: Here we present a clinically applicable guide for a complex intervention entailing assessment and management of dysfunctional or abnormal breathing. Implementation of this protocol within the clinical setting is now recommended, along with ongoing development, and further randomised clinical trials assessing its efficacy, effectiveness, and acceptability.
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