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dc.contributor.authorMoses, Joel Ranui
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVE: To examine and identify the breadth of definitions and measures of objective and subjective spinal stiffness in the literature, with a focus on clinical implications and research opportunities. DATA SOURCES: Eligible peer-reviewed studies were identified using PubMed, Ebsco health, and Scopus electronic databases. DATA EXTRACTION: Following the 6-step framework by Arksey and O’Malley1 and based on the eligibility criteria, studies that reported definitions and measures of spinal stiffness were collected using a data abstraction form and classified into four themes; biomechanical, surgical, pathophysiological and segmental spinal assessment. Fifteen categories to identify similarities and differences between studies were generated. DATA SYNTHESIS: Among 2121 records that were identified, 333 met the eligibility criteria. There were 299 subjective and objective measures (124 subjective;175 objective measures) and 60 indicators of spinal stiffness. The majority of studies (n = 72%) did not define stiffness and there is no consensus regarding a standardised definition of stiffness in the reviewed literature. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the breadth of objective and subjective measures that are both clinically and methodologically diverse. There was marked variation in the definitions reported in studies. There were no definitions of stiffness provided alongside self-reported or patient-reported outcome measures. Stiffness is a clinically important symptom that may indicate the presence of underlying pathophysiology/disease which has implications for patients’ health outcomes. An important distinction should be made between the patient’s subjective reports of stiffness and this may differ from objective clinical assessments.en_NZ
dc.rightsAll rights reserveden_NZ
dc.subjectmusculoskeletal painen_NZ
dc.subjectosteopathic medicineen_NZ
dc.titleDefining and measuring objective and subjective spinal stiffness : a scoping reviewen_NZ
dc.typeMasters Thesisen_NZ
dc.rights.holderAuthoren_NZ of Osteopathyen_NZ Institute of Technologyen_NZ
dc.subject.marsden110499 Complementary and Alternative Medicine not elsewhere classifieden_NZ
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitationMoses, J. R. (2020). Defining and measuring objective and subjective spinal stiffness : a scoping review. (Unpublished document submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Osteopathy). Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Retrieved from
dc.contributor.affiliationUnitec Institute of Technologyen_NZ
unitec.publication.placeAuckland, New Zealanden_NZ
unitec.advisor.principalHach, Sylvia
unitec.advisor.associatedMason, Jesse

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