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dc.contributor.authorCardno, Carol
dc.contributor.authorRobson, J. L.
dc.contributor.authorDeo, Arun
dc.contributor.authorBassett, Martin
dc.contributor.authorHowse, Jo
dc.description.abstractThe literature on instructional leadership consistently assigns this role to school principals whilst indicating that it can be spread amongst others. Recently the spotlight has moved to middle leadership involving a focus on classrooms through direct instructional leadership. The purpose of this study was to add to a small but growing body of literature that centres on middle-level leadership in schools. The research aims were to conceptualise the nature of the direct form of instructional leadership that has been devolved to the middle leadership level; investigate perceptions of expectations held of middle leaders in schools; and investigate their perceived confidence in performing the role. An on-line survey of 185 primary and secondary school middle-level leaders confirmed strong agreement with the role expectations described in terms of a conceptual framework of direct instructional leadership. The results indicated that whilst overall confidence in performing these tasks was high, gaps existed between role expectations and performance confidence, with the function of “having difficult conversations” being the largest gap for both primary and secondary school middle-level leaders.en_NZ
dc.publisherNew Zealand Educational Administration and Leadership Society (NZEALS)en_NZ
dc.rightsThis journal provides immediate open access to its content under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license users are free to share the work (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format), if the contribution is properly attributed and used for non-commercial purposes. The material published in the journal may not be altered or built upon.en_NZ
dc.subjectNew Zealanden_NZ
dc.subjectsecondary schoolsen_NZ
dc.subjectprimary schoolsen_NZ
dc.subjectmiddle level leadersen_NZ
dc.subjectinstructional leadershipen_NZ
dc.subjectquantitative studiesen_NZ
dc.subjectmiddle leadershipen_NZ
dc.titleMiddle-level leaders as direct instructional leaders in New Zealand schools: A study of role expectations and performance confidenceen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Articleen_NZ
dc.rights.holderNew Zealand Educational Administration and Leadership Society (NZEALS)en_NZ
dc.subject.marsden130304 Educational Administration, Management and Leadershipen_NZ
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitationCardno, C., Robson, J., Deo, A., Bassett, M., & Howse, J. (2019). Middle-level leaders as direct instructional leaders in New Zealand schools: A study of role expectations and performance confidence. Journal of Educational Leadership Policy and Practice, 33(2), 32-47.en_NZ
unitec.institutionUnitec Institute of Technologyen_NZ
unitec.publication.titleJournal of Educational Leadership Policy and Practiceen_NZ
dc.contributor.affiliationUnitec Institute of Technologyen_NZ
dc.contributor.affiliationLeading Learning Ltd (Auckland, N.Z.)en_NZ
unitec.publication.placeHamilton, New Zealanden_NZ

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