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dc.contributor.authorSandhu, Harpinder
dc.contributor.authorWaterhouse, B.R.
dc.contributor.authorBoyer, Stephane
dc.contributor.authorWratten, S.D.
dc.description.abstractEcosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually.en_NZ
dc.rightsCopyright 2016 Sandhu et al.en_NZ
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 New Zealand*
dc.subjectpollination scarcityen_NZ
dc.subjectseed productionen_NZ
dc.subjectpollination rateen_NZ
dc.subjecteconomic valueen_NZ
dc.subjectinsect pollinatorsen_NZ
dc.subjectfood securityen_NZ
dc.titleScarcity of ecosystem services : an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agricultureen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Articleen_NZ
dc.identifier.doiDOI 10.7717/peerj.2099en_NZ
dc.subject.marsden050102 Ecosystem Functionen_NZ
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitationSandhu, H., Waterhouse, B., Boyer, S., & Wratten, S. D. (2016). Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture. PeerJ, 4, pp.e2099. doi:10.7717/peerj.2099en_NZ
unitec.institutionUnitec Institute of Technologyen_NZ
unitec.institutionFlinders University (Adelaide, South Australia)en_NZ
unitec.institutionLincoln University (Lincoln, New Zealand)en_NZ
unitec.institution.studyareaNatural Sciences

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