Measuring brand personality in charitable giving in a Laos context
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Citation:Vanphavong, M. (2014). Measuring brand personality in charitable giving in a Laos context. An unpublished thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business, Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand.
Permanent link to Research Bank record:https://hdl.handle.net/10652/3586
Non-Profit Organisations (NPOs) are often perceived in an abstract manner because the organisations provide intangible products and social ideals. As a result of this abstract perception, a sense of trust, especially with regard to organisational transparency, is very important for organisations in this sector. In response, some NPOs have implemented branding strategies similar to those of larger, for-profit companies. Branding strategy is employed to reduce donors‟ perception of risk associated with their respective organisations. As individual donors generally do not investigate whether the organisation uses donated money effectively, developing a brand that exhibits commitment to deliver high quality goods and services, thus instilling trust in the target donors, is essential for NPOs to increase the perception of organisational transparency. In addition, brand personality strategy techniques are adapted from the commercial to the non-profit sector in order to identify the unique characteristics of their brands or brand personality that match with their target market. Ensuring this cohesion between brand personality and the characteristics desired by their target market(s) is integral for NPOs to garner increased revenue from potential donors. Brand personality strategy for NPOs remains in the developmental stages. To date, only Venable et al. (2005) conducted empirical research on brand personality models in the non-profit sector. In that research, it was found that there are some key similarities and differences between brand personality in the nonprofit and for profit sectors. The models of brand personality that have been studied in German, Spanish, French and Japanese contexts show that cultural differences affect the construct of brand personality models. Thus, the purpose of this study is to collect empirical data, in order to identify and develop NPO brand personality scales in the context of Laos. A mixed method was applied in this study. The primary purpose of this mixed methodology was to develop and identify potential measurement variables to be used in a quantitative questionnaire and to test hypotheses in relation to reliability and validity in the context of Laos. Therefore, this approach does not limit this research in the scope of nonprofit brand personality measurement scales that were developed in a different cultural and socioeconomic context. This began with semi-structured interviews that were conducted with eight participants from the Association for Autism in Laos, which is a NPO operating in Laos. Then, after adapting the results from the semi-structured interviews to questionnaires, the questionnaires were distributed and conducted with 116 donors in Vientiane Capital. The sample size for the initial questionnaire data collection stage was adequate to proceed to the next stage of the research and analyse the data using quantitative methods. The data analysis for this study was divided into three main stages. First, coding and filtering was employed to analyse data that was collected from the interviews. Second, frequencies data analysis techniques helped to study donor behavior. Finally, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were the significant techniques to develop nonprofit brand personality scales in the Laos context and test the research hypotheses. The results of the data analysis revealed three dimensions and eight facets of nonprofit brand personality unique to Laos. The researcher believes that this study will contribute theoretical information and subsequently allow for the development of practical implementation of this research for non-profit brands in Laos, as well as serve as a guide for similar research conducted in other country contexts.