Accounting and Finance Conference Papers

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    Representation of financial time series data in a three dimensional space using a geographic model
    (2022-06) Borna, Kambiz; Alshadli, Duaa; Unitec Institute of Technology
    This paper introduces a new approach to visualising and interpolating financial time series data, e.g., Bitcoin prices, in a spatial domain using the notion of spatialization: forming a spatial representation of non-spatial phenomena. The proposed algorithm first utilises temporal components of the observations, i.e., date and time, to build a 2D map-like space. It then uses the coordinates of the observations in the 2D map along with the Bitcoin prices to construct a 3D topographic map. We use this map to create 30-minute frequency data, and compare it with the actual observed Bitcoin prices. The results show the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed method as a new graphical tool in analysing time series data.
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    Consolidation and control in the New Zealand quota managed fishery
    (New Zealand Association of Economists, 2023-06-28) Stewart, James; Moriarity, S.; Yandle, T.; Unitec, Te Pūkenga; Te Pūkenga; University of Oklahoma; New Zealand. Ministry of Transport
    The introduction of individual transferable quotas to the New Zealand fishery has seen the gradual concentration of both quota ownership and catch – especially in the deepwater fishery. This paper examines the levels of concentration of quota ownership, catch and fish receiving (by fish processors) for the top 18 species in New Zealand’s inshore fishery. It uses concentration ratios, the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the Lorenz curve to measure and compare the levels of consolidation. The study combines ‘associated entities’ (companies with common directors) when measuring concentration. Using internationally recognized benchmarks for concentration, the New Zealand inshore fishery is assessed to be unconcentrated in quota ownership and catch but relatively more concentrated in fish receiving. It is evident that quota-owning licenced fish receivers typically rely on self-employed fishers to fish their quota. This enables fishers without quota to continue operating, and also allows fish receivers to benefit from the expertise of career fishers.
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    Statement of service performance reporting: A study of tier three registered charities in New Zealand
    (2022-11-28) Schmidt, E.; Rainsbury, Liz; Prescott, James; Unitec, Te Pūkenga; Te Pūkenga
    Charities have been an important component of most societies throughout human history. For as long as there are groups and individuals in need of help that they are not able to provide for themselves, charities have been there to assist. Furthermore, the drive to provide help to those in need is a defining expression of human civility. Charitable organisations emerged as individuals banded together, united by a commitment to addressing a specific need, to consolidate their resources both physical and mental. They were also a means for rallying the cause and gathering the resources required in the same way a company issues share to the general public. The growth of their activities across the charitable sector has triggered a call for them to be more accountable. While shareholders will have entitlement to an account of the financial activities and performance of the company, they have an interest in, the same is not the case for those that make donations to charities. Since the “return” that donors would deem relevant from a charity is an account of the non-financial impact they have made, the inclusion of a statement of service performance (SSP) has been added to the list of mandated disclosures. This study provides an analysis of the reporting quality across 94 charities listed on the New Zealand Charities Register with the charitable purpose of the advancement of religion. Using a documentary analysis approach, the study finds that the quality of the SSP reporting is influenced by the size of the charitable organisation and a potential misalignment between the format offered by the External Reporting Board (XRB) and what the charities chose to disclose. The findings suggest religious-based charities compile the SSP motivated by compliance rather than informing their stakeholders and contributors of the charitable outcomes they have achieved. The findings from the study will help inform policymakers and regulators that a one size fits all format for the statement of service performance is inappropriate and potentially counterproductive to the needs of the charity, the groups and individuals they aim to serve and the donors who support their vision.
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    A three-dimensional mapping of financial time series data using spatialisation
    (2022-08-24) Borna, Kambiz; Moore, A.B.; Unitec Institute of Technology; University of Otago
    Time series comprises data on some attribute gathered at different points in time which is ordered chronologically [1]. The representation of time series is performed via a two dimensional profile view, where the x-axis represents time intervals, and the y-axis represents a variable of interest, e.g., the daily closing Bitcoin prices. In this example, the geometric relationship between observations is formed via an irregular horizontal line that directly links the Bitcoin prices at different time intervals, or a mathematical function fitted to the observations.
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    Impacts of financial and industry expertise of the audit committee on the readability of key audit matters: New Zealand evidence
    (2022-11-28) Chen, F.; Rainsbury, Liz; Unitec, Te Pūkenga; Te Pūkenga
    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the audit committee’s financial and industry expertise on the readability of KAMs using New Zealand evidence. DESIGN/ METHODOLOGY/ APPROACH The sample covers 50 New Zealand listed companies for the financial year 2021. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine possible relationships between the audit committee’s financial and industry expertise and the KAM readability. The Flesch Reading Ease Formula was used to measure the KAM readability. FINDINGS Both financial and industry experts on the audit committee are positively associated with the KAM readability, although the overall readability of KAMs is very low. Research limitations – This research only covered one year and a sample of 50 companies. Other firm and audit committee attributes excluded in this paper may also impact the KAM readability. ORIGINALITY/ VALUE The research makes a contribution to prior empirical research on KAM, and evidence of audit committee effectiveness.